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From the President - April 2014 by Barry Katz

It is Now Time to Vote

The April issue of the Bulletinannounces the candidates for the HGS officers and Board of Directors for 2014-15 and members of the AAPG House of Delegates for 2014-17. [Editor’s NotE: Candidate profiles for the AAPG House of Delegates will appear in the May issue of the HGS Bulletin.] First let me thank each of the candidates for stepping forward to take on their respective tasks, which include guiding our organization forward and representing the Houston Geologic Society as part of AAPG’s deliberative body. I now ask that each of you take a few minutes and read the biographical material and reasons that each candidate has provided to explain their decision to stand for office, followed by the important act of submitting your vote. Your participation in the voting process remains an important part of the success and future of both organizations.


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From the Editor - April 2014  by Michael Forlenza

Snowball Earth: Frozen Oceans and Greenhouse Gases

Residents of the eastern half of the United States endured months of bone-chilling cold, coatings of ice, and deep snow drifts during the first few months of 2014 due to a “polar vortex.” Yet the polar vortex ebbed allowing the return of more seasonable and temperate conditions. The residents of the supercontinent Rodinia were not so fortunate. According to plate tectonic reconstructions, Rodinia existed between 1.1 billion and 750 million years ago. Several times the Earth’s global mean temperature plunged to less than 75 degrees below zero Fahrenheit, freezing over all of the world’s oceans and shrouding the entire globe from pole to pole in a cloak of ice. Researchers have dubbed these episodes “Snowball Earth.”

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