Joint HGS International & General Dinner - Sheriff Lecture
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Monday, November 16, 2015
Westchase Hilton • 9999 Westheimer
Social Hour 5:30–6:30 p.m.
Dinner 6:30–7:30 p.m.
Cost: $45 pre-registered members; $50 for non-members/ ALL walk-ups (Credit Cards Now Accepted);
$40 for Emeritus/Life/Honorary; $10 for students if pre-registered and pre-paid.
To guarantee a seat, you must pre-register on the HGS website and pay with a credit card. You may walk up and pay at the door if extra seats are available. Please cancel by phone or email within 24 hours before the event for a refund. Online & pre-registration closes Friday, November 13 at 12:00 p.m.
The Sheriff Lecture is held annually in collaboration between HGS and the University of Houston Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences in honor of former faculty member Dr. Robert Sheriff. The event is designed to bring together members of the Houston geological community and showcase the students and research in geology happening at UH. The lecture will be preceded by a student poster session, a short overview of the dcepartment, and the presentation of the distinguished alumni award.
Speaker: Kevin M. Bohacs
ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company
Order from chaos-mudstones as hydrocarbon sources, reservoirs, and seals: their common characteristics and genetics, essential differences, and recognition criteria
All ‘shales’ are not the same, but neither are they all unique. Finding common elements among the mudstone units that serve as hydrocarbon sources, reservoirs, and seals is essential for advancing our understanding of these complex rocks and making wise economic decisions.
Source, reservoir, and seal mudstones share many attributes from composition and depositional controls to stratigraphic distribution (Figure 1; e.g., Bohacs and Lazar, 2008; Lazar et al., 2015). Effective hydrocarbon source, reservoir, and seal mudstones all tend to have significant organic-carbon and clay-mineral content, well-preserved bedding, and early diagenetic cements (Figure 2; Bohacs, 2007; Bohacs et al., 2013). The organic matter in source rocks tends to be well preserved and enriched in hydrogen. In addition, good seals generally have less than 20% silt content and dominantly ductile components, whereas mudstone reservoirs are generally dominated by planktonic input of carbonate or silica that yields lithofacies amenable to induced stimulation (i.e., ‘brittle’ rocks; Figure 2; Bohacs, 2007). A significant thickness of each fine-grained facies and appropriate state of thermal maturity is required for economic effectiveness. These shared attributes allow us to leverage insights and models developed for source rocks to predict seal and reservoir facies.
Source Rocks: In terms of stratal stacking and architecture, source-prone biogenic-rich mudstones at the depositional sequence scale have been shown to occur in a limited number of physiographic settings, each with characteristic occurrence, stratal stacking, distribution, and character of TOC, HI, and fossil material (e.g., Bohacs, 1998). The term “physiographic setting” is an abbreviation for the complex of geomorphic and sedimentation processes that produce a given setting prone to accumulating biogenic-rich rocks. The utility of the physiographic setting factor is that it is portrays a fairly detailed picture of the mudstone depositional system that can be determined from typical exploration data (sequence-stratigraphic framework, facies, paleogeographic maps). The setting has direct implications for the vertical and lateral distribution of biogenic material within a depositional sequence, especially in the marine realm.
For example, in marine Constructional Shelf Margin (CSM) settings, organic-carbon and biogenic content generally increases in each parasequence up to the maximum-flooding downlap surface (MF-DLS), then decreases step wise. In this setting, shoreline clastic dispersal systems are directly coupled to the basinal depositional areas. Thus parasequences generally decrease in thickness and increase in biogenic content towards the basin; organic-matter type changes systematically from terrigenous, low-hydrogen content proximally to marine, high-hydrogen content distally. In contrast, the Platform-Ramp (P-R) setting contains parasequences that are relatively thick in basinward positions and thin (or lap on) toward basin margins. The distribution of organic matter differs significantly from the CSM: the P-R setting shows little or no organic-facies changes towards the limit of fine-grained deposition. Maximum organic-carbon content occurs in the basal TST and decreases stepwise to background levels at the MF-DLS.
Mudstone reservoirs: Using the same approach, ‘shale’ reservoirs can be grouped into meaningful sets or families for analysis and comparison based on geological age, stratal stacking, and depositional setting, leveraging our long-standing approach to source rocks and carbonate reservoirs, thus enabling transfer of lessons appropriately among plays. Although they accumulate in a variety of settings (convergent and divergent margins; marine and lacustrine; wave- , river-, and tide-dominated shelves, slopes, and basin floors), prolific shale-reservoir-play strata have several essential attributes in common: sensitively dependent on pre-existing and contemporaneous bathymetry, moderate clay-mineral content, parallel-bedded fabrics, early diagenetic cements, and significant biogenic content of both source-prone organic matter and brittle lithofacies.
Recently, we recognized that all major shale-gas plays can be grouped into four main families, based on repeated patterns of stratal stacking of biogenic-rich physiographic settings at the sequence-set scale:
- Marine, Basal Platform-Ramp sequence overlain by one or more Distal Constructional Shelf Margin sequences (transgressive to highstand sequence set); e.g., Utica (Pt Pleasant-Flat Creek-Indian Castle), Marcellus (Union Springs-Oatka Creek-Burket), Horn River (Evie-Otter Park-Muskwa), Antrim (Norwood-Lachine-u. Antrim), Woodford (lower-middle), Fayetteville (lower-middle-upper), Haynesville-Bossier, Eagle Ford (lower-upper) Shales
- Marine, Distal stacked Lowstand Systems Tracts (LSTs) in intra-shelfal basins (lowstand sequence set); e.g., Barnett, Floyd Shales
- Marine, Individual Constructional Shelf Margin sequence -- upper Transgressive Systems Tract (TST) through lower Highstand Systems Tract (HST; distal downlap within sequence); e.g., Niobrara, Lewis, Mowry Shale, Gammon, Cody, Mancos, Pierre, Hilliard-Baxter-Mancos, Excello Shales
- Lacustrine, Balanced-Filled sequences -- transgressive to highstand sequence set; e.g., Frederick Brook Formation
Mudstone Seals: Hydrocarbon seals are also amenable to this sequence-stratigraphic-based analysis. A good seal rock is typically fine-grained, with abundant clay-mineral content, less than 20% silt-sized particles, and more than 2 wt.% TOC (Fig. 1.2). Thus, many good source rocks are also good seals—they typically have high capillary entry pressures, are laterally continuous with relatively slowly varying character, and are relatively ductile. Some organic-matter-poor, clay-mineral-rich mudstones can also serve as a seal. Seal and source rocks can accumulate in many of the same depositional settings, with seals also formed in somewhat higher sedimentation rate areas with abundant clay minerals and in evaporative environments, both shallow/proximal and deep/distal. Sequence stratigraphy has been shown to provide the context within which seal potential and behavior can be predicted (e.g., Dawson and Almon, 1999, 2002, 2005; Jonk et al., 2009). A classic example from the Gulf of Mexico shows that for mudstones with the same clay-mineral content, those within transgressive systems tracts have significantly higher capillary entry pressures than those in highstand systems tracts (Dawson and Almon, 199).
This approach enables early identification of the essential elements of a hydrocarbon play from regional context and stratal patterns that can be imaged on seismic and well-log data. And, this approach focuses further data acquisition on attributes critical for economic viability.
So what? But, you might wonder, why all this geology?— aren’t these ‘engineering’ plays?? As it turns out, the equations that govern volumetric source potential, resource in place, and fluid production rates are linear in almost all terms. Hence, it then follows that each of the factors are of equal importance for the overall character of the mudstones in a hydrocarbon system. Some of the geological variables, however, have much wider ranges than others, and therefore can have a larger quantitative influence on calculations of source yield, resource in place, or producibility. Indeed, the net volume of reservoir rock (area x thickness x net:gross) is the dominant factor in the resource-in-place equation, by a factor of 600 or more (e.g., Figure 3).
For the mudstone reservoir portion of the hydrocarbon system, examination of the formulae used for both resource in place and producibility reveals that 35% of the variables are solely rock properties, and that an additional 53% are combinations of rock properties with geologically influenced factors (fluid, basin-history, reservoir pressure, or completions parameters). Essentially only one factor (wellbore radius) out of 14 variables is solely an ‘engineering’ factor.
These quantitative considerations are the motivation for the detailed treatment of geological factors in mudstone reservoir plays. These factors are the essential foundation upon which to build economic success, by convolving them with appropriate drilling, completions, and production practices. Similar attention to geological details is critical to understanding from where the hydrocarbons come, what their composition will be, and where they will be trapped—the other two-thirds of the hydrocarbon system.
Kevin M. Bohacs, from Greenwich, Connecticut, received his B.Sc. (Honors) in geology from the University of Connecticut in 1976 and his Sc.D. in experimental sedimentology from M.I.T. in 1981(where he built and operated the world's largest flume). He joined Exxon Production Research Company in Houston, Texas in 1981, working with Peter Vail, Bob Mitchum, John Van Wagoner, and others on incorporating process-based facies modeling into the development of sequence stratigraphy at the outcrop, core, and well-log scale. He is presently Senior Research Scientist and works with the Hydrocarbon Systems and Stratigraphy and Reservoir Systems divisions.
At ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company, he leads the application of sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology to fine-grained rocks from deep sea to swamps and lakes, in basins around the world. His primary focus is to integrate field work, subsurface investigation, and laboratory analyses to inform business decisions. He works closely with exploration affiliates in evaluating the fine-grained portion of their hydrocarbon systems, teaches field schools in sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology, basin analysis, and field safety leadership, and conducts field work for research and exploration.
He has written more than 101 scientific contributions on the stratigraphy and sedimentology of mudstone, hydrocarbon source rocks, and lake systems, and received numerous best paper and career achievement awards and served as a distinguished lecturer for many societies around the world.
|NAME||TIER||UNDERGRAD/GRAD YEAR||POSTER TITLE|
|Luis Carlos Carvajal||1 - Adv PhD||Aug-16||San Andres Rift, Nicaraguan Shelf: A 346-Km-Long, North-South Rift Zone Actively Extending the Interior of the “Stable” Caribbean Plate|
|Chen Qi||1 - Adv PhD||16-Aug||Coal Beds and Stratigraphic Filtering|
|Riddhi Dave||1 - Adv PhD||5th Year PhD||Seismic Evidence for Erosion of the Wyoming Cratonic Lithosphere|
|Yuribia Munoz||1 - Adv PhD||Local controls on sediment accumulation and sediment distribution in a fjord in the west Antarctic Peninsula, implications for paleoenvironmental interpretations|
|Andy Liu||1 - Adv PhD||5th Year PhD||Tectonics of the mid-Cretaceous intraplate volcanism from the northern Gulf of Mexico to northwestern Canada|
|Linqiang Yang||1 - Adv PhD||3rd Year PhD||Comparisons of Ground-Based and Building-Based CORS: A Case Study in the Region of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands|
|Joan Marie Blanco||1 - Adv PhD||3rd Year PhD||FAULT SYSTEMS DEFORMING OLIGOCENE-MIOCENE RESERVOIRS OF LA VELA BAY, WESTERN VENEZUELA, MAPPED USING 3D SEISMIC DATA|
|Jiannan Wang||1 - Adv PhD||4th Year PhD||Inferring marine sediment type using chirp sonar data: Atlantis field,Gulf of Mexico|
|Naila Dowla||1 - Adv PhD||2nd year PhD||Compilation of the deep crustal structure of the central Atlantic conjugate margins to test pure shear versus simple shear rifting mechanisms|
|Matt Canon||1 - Adv PhD||Gulf of Mexico subsidence history: No correlation with dynamic topography|
|Xuan Qin||1 - Adv PhD||3rd Year PhD||Seismic characters of pore pressure due to smectite-to-illite transition|
|Elita de Abreu||1 - Adv PhD||3rd Year PhD||The use of spectral decomposition volumes on multi attribute analysis to improve petrophysical properties prediction: A case study at Eromanga Basin – Onshore Australia|
|Zhili Wei||1 - Adv PhD||2nd year PhD||Traveltime joint inversion for earthquake location and velocity structure in Southern California area|
|Kurt Sundell||1 - Adv PhD||3rd Year PhD||Testing geodynamic models for surface uplift of the central Andean plateau through volcanic glass paleoaltimetry and basin analysis in southern Peru|
|Azie Aziz||1 - Adv PhD||3rd Year PhD||3D GPR characterization of sandy mouth-bars in an outcrop reservoir analog: Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone, southeastern Utah, U.S.A|
|Long Huang||1 - Adv PhD||3rd Year PhD||Elastic properties of 3D-printed physical models|
|Luchen Li||1 - Adv PhD||3rd Year PhD||Understanding the Mantle Wedge--- An Interpretation of result Using Kirchhoff Migration to image the reflectors above Tonga Slab|
|Pan Deng||1 - Adv PhD||2nd year PhD||Weighted stacking of seismic AVO data using hybrid AB semblance and local similarity|
|Dustin Villarreal||1 - Adv PhD||3rd Year PhD||Assessing Pre-Cenozoic shortening of the eastern Pamir|
|Pongthep Thongsang||1 - Adv PhD||2nd year PhD||Finite Different Viscoelastic Modeling (FDVM) with Multiples and Demultiples Utilizing Deformable-Layer Tomography (DLT) for Inversing Rock Properties in Laminated Reservoir”.|
|Patrick Loureiro||2 - Int MS, Beg PhD||1st year PhD||Controls of asymmetrical opening on sag basins of South Atlantic conjugate margins: Margin characterization from gravity transects and mapping using grids of seismic reflection data|
|Pin Lin||2 - Int MS, Beg PhD||1st year PhD||Predicted fault kinematics of Jurassic faults related to the opening of the southeastern Gulf of Mexico|
|Yuan Tin||2 - Int MS, Beg PhD||1st year PhD||Fault zone seismic reflection imaging using earthquake waveforms and seismic interferometry|
|Crystal Saadeh||2 - Int MS, Beg PhD||1st year PhD||Pliocene onset of eccentricity cycles in the Zhada Basin, southwestern Tibetan Plateau|
|Mike Bond||2 - Int MS, Beg PhD||2nd year MS||Assessing the hydrocarbon potential of the Eagle Ford in Fayette County, Texas using the ΔLogR|
|Lourdes Milano||2 - Int MS, Beg PhD||2nd Year MS||Tectonic and geological history of the Espino rift in Central Venezuela|
|Shenelle Gomez||2 - Int MS, Beg PhD||1st Year PhD||Using 2D gravity modeling to characterize the structure and lithologic composition of the Tobago-Barbados Ridge, Lesser Antilles subduction margin|
|Josh Flores||2 - Int MS, Beg PhD||1st year PhD||Where does the Mariana backarc spreading center trespass on the forearc?|
|Anna Krylova||2 - Int MS, Beg PhD||1st year PhD||Modeling and computational study of the impact of the non-linearity flow in the fractured porous media|
|Zhonghan Liu||2 - Int MS, Beg PhD||1st year PhD||Direct waveform inversion|
|Zachary Martindale||2 - Int MS, Beg PhD||1st year PhD||Comparison of rift and passive margins stages of the East Africa-Madagascar conjugate margins and their impact on heat flow and source rock maturation|
|Lucia Torrado||2-Int MS, Beg PhD||Dec-18||Late Cretaceous to Recent Paleogeography and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Nicaraguan Rise tied to Plate Reconstructions|
|Wenyuan Zhang||2-Int MS, Beg PhD||1st year PhD||Thermal history and provenances of the Drummond Basin, Queensland from (U-Th)/He and U/Pb data|
|Yukai Wo||2-Int MS, Beg PhD||1st year PhD||Near-surface velocity estimation in mountainous area|
|Derek Scott||3 - Undergrad, 1st Year MS||Undergraduate||Characterization of the South Gabon Basin passive-margin fold and thrust belt from 2D seismic interpretation|
|Helena Manuel||3 - Undergrad, 1st Year MS||Undergraduate||X-Ray Facies Analysis of Marine Sediment Cores Collected Near Retreating and Advancing Glaciers from Western Antarctica Peninsula|
|David Lankford-Bravo||3 - Undergrad, 1st Year MS||Undergraduate||Understanding basement structure from the Perdido to the Mexican Ridges|
|Jiaxuan Li||3 - Undergrad, 1st Year MS||1st year PhD||Inversion for anisotropy using moment tensors from the CMT catalog|
|Sabrina Martinez||3 - Undergrad, 1st Year MS||Undergraduate||Effect of sea level change on the extent of the shorelines of the Caribbean up to and during the height of the Last Glacial Maximum (26.5 Ka)|
|Jordan Dickinson||3 - Undergrad, 1st Year MS||1st Year MS||"Structural interpretation of a 954-km-long mega-regional, dip seismic line extending from Greenville, Texas to Sigsbee Escarpment, Gulf of Mexico"|
|Shelly Tran||3 - Undergrad, 1st Year MS||Undergraduate||Do active petroleum systems exist on oceanic crust in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Ocean?|
|Callum Byers||3 - Undergrad, 1st Year MS||Undergraduate||Tectonic geomorphology of large normal faults bounding the Cusco rift basin within the southern Peruvian Andes|
|Andrew Steier||3 - Undergrad, 1st Year MS||Post-Bac||Evaluation of Previously Published Kinematic Plate Models for the Opening of the South Atlantic Ocean using a GIS Compilation of Geologic and Geophysical Information|
|Seckin Polat||3 - Undergrad, 1st Year MS||1st year MS||Characterization of Karstic Petroleum Traps with Seismic Imaging|
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